EV Charging Technology In India
The Indian Committee on Standardization of EV Charging Infrastructure has defined protocols for AC and DC charging of electric vehicles.
The Indian Committee on Standardization of EV Charging Infrastructure has defined protocols for AC and DC charging of electric vehicles. These are called Bharat EV Charger AC-001 and Bharat EV Charger DC-001. In this article, an insight into the nomenclature and fundamental knowledge of the basic EV charging is discussed.
Overview of Charging Types and Connectors:-
1. AC charging:
AC charging is the most common basic type of AC charging where your vehicle can be charged by plugging it into an AC socket. It requires a 5-amp (Type D) or 15-amp (Type M) inlet connector in India.
As per the Bharat EV specifications, most EVs are directly charged using IEC 60309 and IEC 62196 Type 2 connectors with Cable Type-B for AC charging. Most of the Indian e-scooters use a simple 15 amp-3 pin connector. This type of charging is classified into the following types.
Slow AC Charging:
Under this category 2-4 kW are available for 1-2 hours and 6-8 hours for 2 and 3 wheeler and 4 wheeler and above vehicles.
Moderate/Fast AC Charging:
A typical EV charger of 7-25 kW power rating falls under the category. Typically, 4-wheeler electric vehicles are limited to 4-kW chargers. Charging rate may vary depending on EVSE charging rate and vehicle model.
2. DC Charging:
DC charging bypasses the onboard charger and charges the battery directly. This is a premium option for fast charging. As per Bharat specification, Bharat DC Level 1 and 2 are available with Fast Charger. Which provide output power of 10 -15 kW and 30-50 kW respectively.
Nationwide as well as globally, there are four types of DC inlet connectors, namely Chademo, SAE Combo Charging System (CCS), Tesla standard supercharger and Chinese standard GB/T connector.
Such charging options are a super benefit for e-fleet services and heavy duty and medium duty vehicles and buses. They usually require a reasonable recharge time for their larger batteries.
Such charging stations are installed in public places and owned by the charging network operator who provides the services of EV OEMs.
Indian EV Charging Scenarios:
The wall-mounted charging connector on the EVSE provides a high rate of charge with up to 7 kW (ac) of charging power. Each electric vehicle is equipped with an onboard charger that converts an AC socket supply into a DC socket supply to charge your battery.
A public station is a common port that is closely connected to any retail outlet through corridors/highways, curbside, malls or regular diesel/petrol pump stations.
It may offer a choice of DC (expected up to 50 kW in India) or AC charging inlet port which may vary from 25-30 minutes to 8 hours on a full charge depending on your vehicle type.
Unlike conventional vehicles, where one is satisfied by refueling only at a petrol or CNG station, an electric vehicle gets the benefit of home charging at a public charging station.
For this the OEM has suggested that the charging utility is the only requirement. Home charging is usually available with AC power 15 kW power charger. Which takes 8-10 hours to charge. But nowadays DC home charging is entering homes all over the world but not in India yet.
Battery swapping is the most recent alternative to charging technology in the world. Many Indian start-ups and companies have collaborated with giants and are coming up with swapping stations across the country. The primary focus of battery swapping is on the two wheeler EV segment.
The various EV segments and their respective charging ratings are given below:
Also Read: How to Open an Electric Vehicle Charging Station in India